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Selecting a single optical mode in a cavity has been central to laser technology since its inception. Despite this, semiconductor lasers, crucial in a wide range of applications from consumer electronics to specialized medical and defense equipment, face significant challenges in maintaining single-mode operation, especially in larger cavities.

This thesis represents an interdisciplinary endeavor, merging semiconductor optics, photonic devices, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, condensed matter physics, and atomic physics to engineer a laser that sustains single-mode operation regardless of cavity size. The core strategy involves a photonic crystal-based approach to enhance single-mode operation and the nature of wave confinement in cavities is also explored in the process. These advancements not only mark a significant step in laser technology but also open new potential for light-matter interaction in various scientific and technological domains.

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