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Current non-invasive pulmonary function tests include spirometry and plethysmography, which assess lung volume, rates of flow, and gas exchange in both lungs. These tests can collectively measure aggregate respiratory metrics of both lungs, but not the right or left lung separately. This key drawback motivates a localized approach, through signal intensity based pulmonary function biomarkers. Recent advances in ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI allows for robust imaging in pulmonary free-breathing exercises, without harmful ionizing radiation. Applying signal intensity based methods, biomarker metrics such as time to signal intensity peak (TTP) or full width at half maximum (FWHM) intensity are extracted from the image. The resulting visualizations depict localized respiratory function to help clinicians understand the rate and velocity at which lung tissue expands from full inspiration to full expiration.

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