This dissertation focuses on the above problems and improving the efficiency of deep neural networks at four levels. Model efficiency: we designed neural networks for various computer vision tasks and achieved more than 10x faster speed and lower energy. Data efficiency: we developed an advanced tool that enables 6.2x faster annotation of a LiDAR point cloud. We also leveraged domain adaptation to utilize simulated data, bypassing the need for real data. Hardware efficiency: we co-designed neural networks and hardware accelerators and achieved 11.6x faster inference. Design efficiency: the process of finding the optimal neural networks is time-consuming. Our automated neural architecture search algorithms discovered, using 421x lower computational cost than previous search methods, models with state-of-the-art accuracy and efficiency.