Because of the mismatch between I/O and CPU speeds, high performance computers have long been forced to confront the fundamental I/O bottleneck. As processing power and memory size continue to grow rapidly for micro and mini computers, they too will become I/O limited. A number of hardware and software approaches, such as parallel read-out disks, expanded storage (e.g. solid state disks), and disk striping, have been used to increase I/O bandwidth and thus narrow the CPU-I/O performance gap. In addition, new developments driven by advances in small diameter (i.e., 5.25" and 3.5" disk drives, promise very high I/O bandwidth if large numbers of devices can be organized into arrays of disks. In this paper, we shall review the state of the art in disk devices and I/O controllers, and will describe new approaches for very high performance I/O based on redundant arrays of inexpensive disks (RAIDs).
Disk System Architectures for High Performance Computing
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Electrical Engineering & Computer Sciences Technical Reports
The Engineering Library
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