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This paper describes the collection and analysis of supercomputer I/O traces and their use in a collection of buffering and caching simulations. This serves two purposes. First, it gives a model of how individual applications running on supercomputers request file system I/O, allowing system designers to optimize I/O hardware and file system algorithms to that model. Second, the buffering simulations show what resources are needed to maximize the CPU utilization of a supercomputer given a very bursty I/O request rate. By using read-ahead and write-behind in a large solid-state disk, one or two applications were sufficient to fully utilize a Cray Y-MP CPU. (Originally published on December 14, 1990; Revised October 16, 1992)

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