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In this paper we leverage the structure of the SDN software stack to automate the process of troubleshooting networks. We present two techniques for programmatically localizing the root cause of network problems: cross-layer correspondence checking infers what problems exist in the network, and where in the control software the problem first developed; and simulation-based causal inference infers when the triggering event(s) occurred. We evaluated our tools on three popular SDN platforms---Frenetic, Floodlight and POX---and found or reproduced three bugs: isolation breaches and faulty failover logic between replicated controllers.

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